Mathematics Spring Semester Mathematics is not only important in Economics, but also in the Social Sciences, where it has significance in the use of statistics. Quantitative methods provide the foundation for many of the theoretical advancements of modern economics. Nowadays mathematical tools have become an important prerequisite for all those who want to understand the economic and business literature. Students of economics and business are required to achieve a solid understanding of mathematics. This includes mathematical tools such as infinitesimal calculus for functions of one or several variables, optimization with and without constraints, linear algebra and difference equations. Mathematics is also a way to logically structure arguments in order to obtain new hypotheses or statements to be tested on real data. The lecture introduces the basic mathematical techniques and intends to help students achieve the level of understanding needed to approach the economic and business literature. The lecture also aims to assist students in further developing their mathematical logic. In the spring semester topics are: optimisation of function of two real variables, with and without constraints, integration with applications, vector and matrices, systems of linear equations, Cramer’s rule, Gauss elimination method, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.